Heart attack is a common cardiovascular disease. Common disease in the elderly, hypertension. Without proper awareness of the disease, proper prevention and treatment, myocardial infarction can lead to even death complications.

The typical symptoms of myocardial infarction

Common symptoms of myocardial infarction include: Angina pectoris, the degree of pain can range from less severe, intense burning in the left chest to severe pain like a stabbing knife, tighten. The pain may spread to the neck, lower jaw, left shoulder, back, abdomen or left arm. Pain may last for many minutes or disappear and then reappear. In addition to typical pain, patients also have symptoms: Shortness of breath; sweat; nausea, vomiting; worry; cough; dizzy; heart palpitations. In some cases, the patient may not experience the symptoms described above but only feel a little tired or just feel discomfort in the epigastrium.

Heart attack can be life-threatening. Angina can last for hours, so when you have symptoms, seek help and get to the hospital as soon as possible.

Heart attack can lead to stroke and death.

Causes of myocardial infarction

The most common cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis. This condition is caused by plaque accumulating over time and attaching to the walls of blood vessels, the constituents including cholesterol, calcium, and cell debris. Factors leading to coronary artery blockage include:

Increased cholesterol level : A diet high in saturated fat can promote the formation of coronary atherosclerosis. Saturated fat is most commonly found in meat and dairy products including butter and cheese. These fats can clog arteries by increasing the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood and lowering good cholesterol. A diet high in trans fat or hydrogenated fat. Trans fats are created by humans and can be found in many processed foods. Trans fats are often listed on labels as partially hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated fats.

If myocardial ischemia lasts too long, myocardial tissue will die, causing angina or heart attack.

Hypertension: Normal blood pressure depends on the age, in adults is less than 120/80 mmHg. The higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk. High blood pressure will damage arteries and promote plaque formation.

High triglyceride levels: This also causes an increased risk of heart attack. Triglycerides travel throughout the body until stored in fat cells. However, some triglycerides can also build up in arteries and promote plaque formation.

Diabetes: This is a condition caused by high blood sugar, which damages blood vessels and eventually leads to coronary artery disease.

Obesity: There is a higher risk of heart attack than people with a reasonable weight. Obesity is often associated with other conditions that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease including: diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, triglycerides ...

Smoking: Causes increased risk of coronary artery disease and can lead to other cardiovascular diseases.

Age: The risk of coronary artery disease increases with age. Men are at high risk for this disease after 45 years and women after 55 years.

Family: There is a greater risk of heart attack if someone in the family has early cardiovascular disease. The risk is especially high if a male member of the family has a heart attack before age 55 or a female member before age 65.

Other factors that may increase the risk of myocardial infarction include: Stress, physical inactivity; taking illegal drugs like cocaine and amphetamine; History of pre-eclampsia or pregnancy hypertension.

Methods of treatment of myocardial infarction

Heart attack requires immediate treatment, so most cases are treated in the emergency room. Coronary intervention aims to unclog arteries, helping to supply blood to the heart. In some cases, the doctor may perform coronary artery bypass surgery by connecting veins and arteries so that blood circulates around the blockage.

In cases of surviving patients without timely intervention, a part of the heart muscle will die and affect long-term contraction function of the heart muscle. When myocardial infarction patients are taken to the hospital early, they may be prescribed fibrinolytic agents or interventional cardiac catheterization in the coronary arteries, where the heart muscle is reperfused and myocardial cells are given. conserve. However, some patients with diabetes will have a narrowing of multiple coronary arteries and cannot interfere with stent placement. Your doctor will prescribe coronary artery bypass surgery when your heart attack is more stable. Regardless of the method of treatment, after a heart attack, the patient is given a variety of medications to support and prevent a relapse. Patients should monitor regular health checks and take enough prescription medication to maintain optimal disease status and prevent heart failure after a heart attack.

Dr. Bui Thi Xuan Nga shared many interesting topics about myocardial infarction at a seminar organized by City International Hospital.

Prevention of heart attack like?

Patients should learn carefully about the causes of disease to best prevent them for themselves and their families. First of all, right from the start of the disease, attention should be paid to diet and exercise to prevent disease in general and to prevent cardiovascular disease in particular. Healthy eating habits and regular exercise will reduce the incidence of many risk factors for heart and coronary heart disease.

You should be able to control this disease if you take the following measures:

Nutrition: A healthy diet includes cereals, vegetables, fruits, lean meats. Foods in the diet should be reduced, including sugar, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol.

Exercising several times a week will help improve heart health If you have had a heart attack, you should consult with your doctor first for advice on a moderate and effective exercise regime.

Quitting smoking is a very important factor, because it will significantly reduce the risk of heart attack and improve cardiovascular and respiratory health. Avoid the environment that makes you smoke passive.

For patients who already have the disease and have interfered with an optimal lifestyle change but have not yet controlled the risk factors, they should follow the treatment prescribed by cardiologists.

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Source: Public Health News 

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